What is a funnel?
Funnel is a type of analysis that visualizes how customers move through a series of events. With funnels you can see how customers progress in your business and determine their conversion rate and fallout at any point of their journey.
Example of Exponea funnel:
Why should you use them?
You should use funnels whenever you need to check the conversions within a series of events, for example to see if the menu in your business is too long or how many customers you lose during the first few minutes.
Advanced usages include drill-downing funnels and comparing conversions by country, business versions or calculating revenue for different segments of customers who complete each step of your funnel.
How funnels work?
Funnels take a series of steps (events) and then compute how many customers completed each step in a given order.
Suppose you want to see how many customers went to your website and then read an article. You would create a 2 step funnel with first step being an event session start and second being an event article view. Funnels will then calculate the conversion rate in real-time from all your data.
For more advanced questions on how are funnels calculated please see the Advanced section.
Creating a basic funnel
Create new funnel
You can create a new funnel by clicking the Create new button in the Funnels section of Analyses. If you don’t see the button you haven’t tracked any data yet and you should complete the basic integration of your business first.
Adding and removing steps
After creating a new funnel you see the edit window. You always start with a single step.
You can now click into the event picker and select an event you want to pick as a first in the series. In the event picker you see only events that you have already tracked.
To add another step click the Add step button.
To remove a step click the thrash bin button.
To duplicate a step click the duplicate button.
- number of steps is unlimited
- steps in the funnel are not required to happen during a single session (funnels are computed for the whole time interval you specify)
- to match the sequence of events customer has to have selected events during the time interval you specified
To learn more about how funnels are calculated see the Advanced section.
Modifying and rearranging steps
You can rename a step by clicking the pencil icon in the step title.
You can rearrange steps by dragging the step by icon.
Choosing a time interval
Without specifying a time interval funnels are calculated on all events since the start of the tracking until now. Take a look at How are funnels calculated to understand how time intervals affect funnels.
It is possible to limit this interval to calculate the funnel for example only for the last week or between two specific dates.
You can turn on the time filter by clicking the date icon.
You should now see an empty date filter:
There are two possible time interval filters you can use. Only events that happen during the specified time interval are taken into account when calculating the funnel.
Absolute date filter:
Relative time filter:
To learn more about time filters please visit the Time filters page.
Limiting the time frame of a funnel
It is possible to limit the time frame within which all steps of the funnel must be completed. For example if you want to see how many customers bought an item within 24 hours after their first session, you would use the time frame limit.
You can turn on the time frame limit by clicking the clock icon.
After turning the filter on you should see the filter:
You can filter any event step by clicking the filter icon.
Events can be filtered by their attributes. After turning the filter on for an event you should see an attribute picker.
After picking the desired attribute you can set up the condition for the event.
This filter will match only customers who had an event match with attribute elixir stolen taking values greater than 50 000.
Without specifying a customer attribute (like age, segment or aggregate) funnel is calculated for all customers in your business. By adding a customer filter you filter customer who enter the funnel calculation.
You can add a customer filter by clicking the plus icon after clicking the customer filter bar.
Previewing and saving
You can preview the funnel by clicking the preview button inside the analysis header.
This will show you the funnel chart and table under the funnel definition. If you don’t see the funnel chart, try scrolling the page.
Previews are always calculated from all the data in real time. We don’t precompute funnels and you always see the actual state. Please note that we don’t redraw the funnel once the preview is shown.
To learn how to read funnels please refer to the section Understanding funnels.
After you name your funnel you can save it for future viewing or editing by clicking the save button inside the analysis header.
You can view all saved funnels in the funnel list in the Funnels section.
To duplicate existing (saved) funnel you can use Save as function located near the regular save button inside the analysis header.
You will be prompted to name the duplicated funnel. After you confirm the name you can find the funnel in the Funnel list.
After opening the section Funnels from the menu you are either shown the Welcome screen (if you have no funnels) or the funnel list (if you have created and saved at least one funnel).
Funnel list with one saved funnel:
You can open funnels by clicking on the appropriate row or you can go straight to the editing by clicking the edit icon.
It is also possible to delete created funnels by clicking the thrash bin button. Be careful when deleting though – this action is not reversible. However deleting a funnel only deletes the definition of the funnel – you can’t delete customers or events when inside the funnel list.
When you open an existing funnel from the funnel list you are presented with the basic view of the funnel. To learn how to read the funnel please refer to the section Understanding funnels.
There are few things to do in the basic view. You can continue to the editing by clicking on the edit button in the header of the analysis.
You can click on the Refresh button to re-calculate the funnel with the most recent data.
You can click on the Compare button to go into Compare view.
You can also do various Actions on funnels.
Please note that even though we allow you to for example drill down the funnel you can’t save the drill-downed funnel from the basic view . To save the changes you must be in the editing mode.
When in the basic view it is possible to compare one funnel in two different time ranges or with two different customer filters. Comparing funnels is useful for understanding if people in one country differ in conversion rates compared to customers in other countries or how conversion rates evolve in time.
To compare funnels simply click on the Compare button on the top right of your screen in the basic view. This will split your funnel into two views with their own customer and time filter.
To change the customer filter click on the respective Customer filter and choose a customer attribute (i.e. country) to compare conversion rates for two different segments of customers.
To change the time interval simply pick the time range you desire for both views. You can also turn off the time interval so the funnel is calculated for the whole time being.
These filters work the same way as they work in the editing mode.
If you clicked preview in the edit mode or if you opened the funnel from the funnel list you should see two parts of the funnel – the chart and the table.
The chart tells you conversion rates (between event steps) and numbers of customers who completed the steps so far. So in above example, 84 872 customers have event installation. From these customers 49.3% have event session_start after event installation. Again from these 41 808 customers 62.2% have started a match after they had event session_start. To learn more how the order of events is taken into account please scroll down to How are funnels calculated?
Additionally if you hover over the column you can see more information, for example the average time it took customers to move from one step to the other or the total conversion rate from the first step.
Hovering over the last event step:
The table contains funnel information in concise form. Table is more useful when using advanced funnel features like drill-downs.
Actions on funnels
While viewing a funnel you can click on any event step (represented by a column) with left mouse button to show a context menu. There are 4 basic actions you can take. There is also a drill-down by customer attribute available from the top row of the funnel table.
When you click on Show customers you will be shown all customers that matched all steps from the first step until the step you clicked.
So if I click on the event step installation from the above example, I will be shown 84 872 customers. On the other hand if I click on the last step, I will be shown only customers who completed all three steps of the funnel – 25 992 customers.
Showing only customers that matched the funnel:
I can now view every single customer that matched the funnel by clicking on him. It is also possible to download a .csv file with a list of these customers with their attributes or to delete these customers.
With drill-downs you can split every funnel into greater detail. This is extremely useful when you want to compare conversion rates between various segments of customers. It is possible to drill-down funnels based on customer attributes (i.e. country or sex) or based on event attributes (e.g. difficulty chosen by customer at the start of the business).
Example of a drill-down by a customer attribute country.
Drill-downing by a customer attribute
To drill-down the funnel by a customer attribute you need to pick the attribute from the customer attribute picker in the top row of the table right under the chart.
After picking a customer attribute and clicking Apply the drill-down is immediately calculated.
To see how to read the drill-downed funnel please continue to Understanding drill-downs.
Drill-downing by an event attribute
To drill-down the funnel by an event attribute you have to click on the event step. In the context menu you will see the option Drill down by… Here you can pick the desired attribute.
Immediately after clicking on the attribute the drill-down is calculated. In this example we drill-downed the funnel by attribute total price from the event purchase.
To see how to read drill-downed funnels please continue to Understanding drill-downs.
Please note that it is important on which event you start the drill-down from. To learn more please read How are funnels calculated.
When you drill-down a funnel either by a customer attribute or by an event attribute you should see the funnel split into several flows. Let’s have a look at an example, where we drilled down basic cart funnel by the frequency of payments segmentation.
Here we have drill-downed the funnel by clicking on the drop-down menu drill down by customer attribute. This way we can compare conversions and numbers for groups null(no payment), 1 payment, 2 payments and 3 or more payments.
The flow of the group is indicated by color. Customers in the first group (yellow) had never purchased anything before according to the segmentation. The purple group has paid once, the pink group twice and the blue one three or more times.
In the drill-down these groups are compared so you can see how many customers completed each step and what was the conversion rate. For example to simply compare conversions we can switch to percentage view by clicking on the % button in the header of the table.
We can see that 64.82% of customers with zero payments actually get to view cart (remember, that if they got to purchase they would be in the purple segment with people with one payment).
When using drill-downs it is possible to choose different visualization of the funnel steps. By using the controls on the top right of the table you can show/hide the unique total count and you can also show/hide individual values from the drill-down.
Default (quantity) view
This is the default view that will be shown every time you create a new drill-down. In the table customer quantities are shown.
You can show this view by clicking the % button. Conversion rates between two consecutive steps are shown as percentages.
View with total unique customers per step
You can show total unique column by toggling the hidden/shown button in the first row of the table (the eye on the right).
Advanced: A/B testing drill-downs
To truly understand which group of customers (for example drill-downed by country) has better conversion rates it is important to take into account not only conversion rates but also the number of customers who have converted.
Suppose that your conversion rate from the first session to payment is 4.4% for American customers. Now if you have only two customers from small country like Uganda and both of them make a payment, you would see 100% conversion rate for customers from Uganda. If you were to compare only conversion rates you would learn that customers from Uganda have 100% conversion rate and are outperforming USA customers by quite a margin. While this is true, the conversion is calculated from statistically insignificant number of customers – two customers can’t be compared to thousands of customers you have in America.
That’s why we have created a simple tool to compare conversion rates even on such disproportionate data.
To compare conversion rates between two event steps you have to click and choose AB test on both steps.
This will automatically compute the conversion and confidence percentages and show them in the table. Additionally we will show you a message above the table with information on if there is a strong, weak or no winner.
In this example conversion rates are fairly close, no clear winner could be decided from the data.
Summarizing event attributes
Sometimes you want to see how much revenue you have made from customers starting your business with different difficulty or coming from different sources.
To summarize event attribute in the funnel you can use the Summarize option from the context menu after clicking on the event you want to summarize.
This will add a single column denoted by a ∑ sign. In this column there will be a sum of all values from the picked event attribute.
In this example there were 5017 customers in our business who completed this funnel and in total made purchases worth $35 340.
It is also possible to summarize event attributes when using drill-downs for more detailed information.
By drill-downing the event step installation by attribute country we can see that we have made $8462 from customers in the United States.
Sending a campaign
It is possible to target customers in a campaign by clicking on an event step (or drill-downed flow).
This will open a new scenario where you will see one condition matching the chosen event or segment of customers from the drill-down. In this example a condition that will match customers who had event hard purchase after installation was automatically created.
To learn more about sending campaigns please visit the Scenarios guide.
Advanced: How are funnels calculated?
Funnels take a series of steps (events) you define and then compute how many customers completed each step in a given order.
Your customers must complete funnel steps in a loose order. This means that a customer can do other actions (events) between funnel steps, as long as he completes funnel steps in a given order.
Let’s assume our funnel has five steps in this order: A > B > C > D > E. Let’s have a look at few cases:
- The customer does steps A > B > C > D > E in the exact order. This customer will be counted in every funnel step.
- The customer does steps A > B > F > C > D > E. This customer will be counted in every funnel step. The fact that he did step F between B and C doesn’t matter because of the loose ordering.
- The customer does steps A > B > C > E. This customer will be counted only in the first three funnel steps. He will not appear in the step D as he didn’t do this step. He will also not appear in the step E because he didn’t do step D. Only customers who have completed previous step can continue to the next.
- The customer does steps A > B > C > E > D > E. This customer will be counted in every funnel step. At first this customer did step E before step D, but later he did step E again. Because of the loose ordering he have completed the whole funnel, even though later.
Unique customers, not event totals
Even though Exponea funnels are calculated from events, total event count is not shown in the funnel. The number you see for a step in a funnel is the number of customers who completed that step of the funnel. Customers are also counted only once throughout the funnel even if they complete the funnel multiple times.
Let’s assume our funnel has three steps in this order: A > B > C. If a customer does events A > B > C > A > B > C he will be counted in every step of the funnel only once.
How setting a time interval affects the funnel?
By default the time interval filter is turned off and funnels are calculated for the whole time span since the start of the tracking until now.
By turning the time interval on you will limit the time span a customer has to complete funnel steps. Only events that fall into the selected time interval will be taken into account.
Let’s assume our funnel has two steps in this order: A > B. If we limit the time interval to the last 30 days, only customers who did steps A > B in the last 30 days will be counted in both steps of the funnel. If a customer does events A > B but the first step A didn’t happen in the last 30 days, this customer will not be counted in the funnel.